From Global Warming Art
Graph of the annual and accumulated changes in average glacier thickness during the last 50 years.
The effective rate of change in glacier thickness, also known as the glaciological mass balance, is a measure of the average change in a glacier's thickness after correcting for density variations associated with the compaction of snow and conversion to ice. The map shows the average annual rate of thinning since 1970 for the 173 glaciers that have been measured at least 5 times between 1970 and 2004 (Dyurgerov and Meier 2005). Larger changes are plotted as larger circles and towards the back.
All survey regions except Scandinavia show a net thinning. This widespread glacier retreat is generally regarded as a sign of global warming.
During this period, 83% of surveyed glaciers showed thinning with an average loss across all glaciers of 0.31 m/yr. The most rapidly growing glacier in the sample is Engabreen glacier in Norway with a thickening of 0.64 m/yr. The most rapidly shrinking was Ivory glacier in New Zealand which was thinning at 2.4 m/yr. Ivory glacier had totally disintegrated by circa 1988 .
This figure was originally prepared by Robert A. Rohde from published data.
Global Warming Art License
This image is an original work created for Global Warming Art by Robert A. Rohde.
Please select the category below that best matches your intended use.
Academic and Non-commercial Use
This image may be used freely in any academic work where the author(s) do not receive a fee for their efforts and/or in any non-commercial
work, provided that in either case these conditions are met:
- You acknowledge the author of this image and Global Warming Art alongside the image. The recommended format is "Image created by Robert A. Rohde / Global Warming Art", but this may be varied to conform with a publication's style.
Qualified academic and non-commercial projects may also be eligible to receive higher resolution and/or vector graphics forms of this image upon request.
Free Content Use (GFDL / CC-BY-SA)
This image (or modified versions of it) may be used in any work where the publication as a whole is released under one of the following free content
Where applicable, these rights include some forms of commercial use; however, the provisions on redistribution are such that these licenses not intended for most commercial projects.
Commercial publishers who wish to use this image under terms other than those given above, may obtain a license to do so by contacting email@example.com
If you do so, please provide the following information:
- Name of the image or images required
- Name, nature, and target audience of the publication it is intended to appear in
- Approximate size of the print run or distribution
- Region and/or language of distribution
- Any additional rights requested
Rights are usually provided based on a one-time fee which is at or below market rates. In most cases, higher resolution and/or vector graphics versions of the image are available at no additional cost.
It is also requested, but not required, that authors send Global Warming Art a copy of any significant publications that include the use of this image. Those interested in commercial and/or higher quality reproduction may also wish to refer to the information for professional republishers.
This sample of mountain glaciers excludes the primary ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.
It should be acknowledged that glacier sampling is heavily biased towards North America and Europe. Substantial unsampled mountain glaciers exist in South America, Asia and the margins of Antarctica. However, the glacier distriution is also not uniform. Africa has only a handful of glaciers and continental Australia has none. Despite their relative importance, none of the marginal Antarctic glaciers have had their mass balance sampled at least 5 times since 1970.
These estimates of ice sheet thinning do not include glacier mass lost due to iceberg calving. Such calving is not significant for most mountain glaciers since only a small proportion of these glaciers terminate in large bodies of water.
- [abstract] [full text] Dyurgerov, Mark B. and Mark F. Meier (2005). Glaciers and the Changing Earth System: A 2004 Snapshot. Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research. Occasional Paper 58.
GWArt images and pages linking to this file
Wikipedia pages and images linking to this file
Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.
|current||03:57, 5 March 2006||650×477 (108 KB)||Robert A. Rohde (Talk | contribs)|